Author Archives: Craytheon

About Craytheon

We simplify Financial Analysis and Stock Valuation for investors.

Avoid investing in companies whose shares have been pledged by their promoters.

When promoters pledge their shares, its a sign that the company cannot raise funds from other normal sources because banks are afraid that the company may not pay back the money, so the banks make the promoters pledge their shares to them. In simple words the promoters gives the rights to the bank to sell the shares if in case the company does not payback the loan. If during the loan tenure the share price of the company falls beyond a limit which is set by the lender, it triggers a margin call, the lender can demand that the loan be repaid or more shares to be pledged. If the promoter cannot repay or offer more shares, the bank can invoke the pledged shares aka sell those pledged shares which causes further fall in the stock price.

We always recommend that investors should avoid companies which have high debt, high debt companies not surprisingly are the ones whose promoters have to pledge their shares. Let us compare the stock price performance of some companies which have pledged their shares.

Suzlon has 20% of their shares pledged, that is a significant number.

suzlon_pledged_shares

Suzlon’s share price has not done so well over the years.

suzlon_share_price

 

GMR Infra have 48% shares pledged, that is huge.

gmr_infra_pledged_shares

As expected, the stock performance has been very poor.

gmr_infra_share_price

 

For the last example we will look at PARSVNATH Developers which has 59% shares pledged, that is just crazy.

Parsvnath_pledged_shares

Any guess how its share price performed over the years?

Parsvnath_share_price

We can give many such example but hope you get the point.

As you can see from the above charts, there is no good reason to invest in companies which have pledged their shares, these companies have a tough time paying back their interest payments because overall the company is not doing so good which ultimately reflects on the stock price. Just by looking at the shareholding chart in the Insiders Page you can make the decision in less than a minute whether to invest or not. You can save your time, money and stress by ignoring such bad companies.

Vakrangee Share Price Crash

Vakrangee has been in the spotlight for all the wrong reasons. It’s share price crashed more than 50% in the last few days because there was a report in Mumbai Mirror that SEBI was investigating Vakrangee for share price manipulation. Such share price manipulation usually involves circular trading.

vakrangee_share_price

Vakrangee Share Price Chart

Now before we talk about Vakrangee, we will quickly explain what is circular trading. Circular trading is trading where the promoter or entities directly or indirectly related to the promoter buy and sell the shares for weeks or months. The shares are exchanged between these parties and the share price is slowly incremented. Normal retail investors or even institutional investors are not aware about this circular trading between insiders they just see that the share price is increasing and so even they are charmed by such share price rise and start buying shares. With all this buying by new investors the share price shoots up more. This goes on for a while and once the share price reaches the target set by the the promoter, the insiders start unloading their shares at high values and the insiders make a huge profit. The share price eventually drops and the retail investors are left holding the loss.

Now of course we don’t know if this actually happened with the Vakrangee but we searched the SEBI archives and found something interesting. Back in 2001 SEBI had conducted an investigation against Vakrangee because there were allegations of creation of artificial market and manipulation of the price in this scrip. The price of the scrip had moved from Rs.10/- to Rs.600/- during September 1999 to March 2000. Some brokers who were involved were banned from trading for 6 months.

In 2014 SEBI had imposed a penalty on one Vakrangee senior executive Prem Meiwal for delay in making disclosures to the stock exchanges with regard to change in his shareholding many times. Prem Meiwal was a VP of corporate affairs but he was also given the additional charge of assisting the company’s finance dept which is a bit fishy.

On Jan 25 2018, Vakrangee bought 20 lakh (2 million) shares of PC Jewellers. Vakrangee claims they had lot of money in the bank so instead of investing in debt or equity funds they decided to invest directly in PC Jewellers. This is not a good sign instead of using the extra funds to grow the company directly or returning the money to Vakrangee’s shareholders by issuing dividends, the company wants to be in the business of buying jewellery company.

 

Vakrangee has around 40,000 + kendra but what is a bit fishy is that all the kendra’s have the same phone numbers.

vakrangee_kendras

The current share price is down more than 50%, now it is your job as an investor to decide whether Vakrangee with such management is a good company to invest or not?

 

Sources

https://www.sebi.gov.in/sebi_data/commondocs/ar0102a_p.pdf

https://www.sebi.gov.in/sebi_data/commondocs/part-2_p.pdf

https://www.sebi.gov.in/sebi_data/attachdocs/1292328722714.pdf

Three peaks of Nifty PE

If you look at the long term Nifty PE chart right from 1999 to 2018 you will notice three distinct peaks at Nifty PE level of 27. During the last two peaks in 2000 and 2008 Nifty PE went a bit above 27 and then there was a dramatic fall for a year or two. In Jan 2018 the Nifty PE went a bit above 27 and it looks like it has started to fall down in the last couple of days.

Nifty PE Chart

Nifty PE Chart

Ofcourse we cannot definitely say that the overall market will fall in the next coming days but the probability of that happening is higher if you look at the previous behaviour when PE was at 27.

If the market does indeed fall dramatically then yes your returns will go down but it will give a much needed opportunity to buy good companies at a fair value. Such downturns are always good news for long term investors. Valuation Screener will help you identify which stocks are undervalued.

Buy when there is blood on the streets.

In Feb 2016 we made a post about the stock market is going down, it’s a good time to buy and said that we were buying an auto ancillary stock. The stock we were talking about was Motherson Sumi.

In July 2015 the Volkswagen scandal broke out, the company was caught cheating emissions tests. The software in some of their diesel cars could figure out when the car was being used in emission test(aka laboratory conditions) and change the engine performance to emit low nitrogen oxide pollutants and overall lower the performance. So it passed all the emission tests. Once the car was on the road, the software disabled the cheating module and the engine would emit 40 times the permissible amount of nitrogen oxide. A couple of researchers who were testing Volkswagen cars found out the cheating mechanism and broke the story, Volkswagen shares went into a free fall.

So what does all of this have to do with Motherson Sumi. Motherson is a key supplier of wiring harness to the Volkswagen group, the group has different companies under its umbrella like Audi, Porsche, Volkswagen and others. 40% of the revenue came from Volkswagen group, so investors who panicked started selling their Motherson shares and it went into a free fall as well.

Intelligent investors on the other hand instead of panicking welcome such opportunities. Although 40% of revenues come from Volkswagen group, the scandal affected only the diesel cars of Volkswagen company (not the rest of car companies of the group). Motherson chairman said that around 15% of the revenue came from Volkswagen company, the stock price meanwhile fell from 357 Rs to a low of 158 a massive 55% loss. Was a 55% decline in the share price justified when the scandal affected 15% of the revenue and it’s not like there was a permanent loss of that 15% revenue, Volkswagen obviously would fix the issue and orders for wiring harness would continue for years to come.

 

Motherson Sumi Share Price

Motherson Sumi share price drop and rise.

So this was a low risk high reward opportunity, investors who bought Motherson shares then would have been rewarded with more than 100% share price growth now.

PS – There is a similar opportunity in one company in the Pharma Sector right now which will we post soon. You probably will know the name if you check the Valuation Screener or if you get our Valuation Report emails.

Disclosure – We hold long position in Motherson.

PS – Please do not call/email us for personal financial advice or stock tips.

Pharma companies are undervalued.

The stock market is near peak bubble territory. Check the long term NSE PE Ratio chart to see what happened when the PE ratio touched 25. Of course this does not mean there will be crash soon, nobody can predict that but if you look at history then it would make sense not to invest right now.

nifty-pe-ratio
The share price of most companies is overvalued right now finding good investment opportunities has become difficult but there is hope. Look at the NSE Sectoral Performance for the last 3 months.

nse-sector-performance

Most of the sectors have given good returns except IT and Pharma. The companies in the Pharma sector have been facing tough times. Such adverse conditions are good news for patient value investors because investing in companies who have taken a beating gives enormous returns down the line. The only condition is you have to analyse which stocks to invest in that sector.

Companies like Sun Pharma, Lupin, Divis Lab, Dr Reddy’s which were once the darlings of Pharma sector have taken a significant beating. Most of Pharma companies faced the wrath of US FDA due to tighter regulations.

Despite the short term bad news, Pharma companies are not going anywhere, they have promised to fix all the regulatory issues. We believe it’s a good time to invest in the Pharma sector. Of Course there is always a possibility that the share price of Pharma companies can fall even more, if that happens you will get to buy them cheaper. You can check our charts, valuation models of the individual pharma companies to see which ones are fundamentally good or bad. If you don’t have the tenacity to do the research you can invest in a Pharma mutual fund.

So even though the market is overvalued there are some hidden gems provided you know where to find them.

Indian Stock Brokerage Account for beginners

This is just a short guide which will explain the different types of brokerage account fees and tell which you stock broker you should sign up for. As a new investor or trader you should not be paying a huge brokerage fees.

 

There are two types of brokers when it comes to stock market. the first is a full service broker and the other is a discount broker.

The full service broker has a huge offline presence all over the country and they usually give out recommendations on which stocks to buy or sell. e.g. Sharekhan, ICICI, HDFC etc.

Most of the full service brokerage rates are high, they charge upto 0.5% of the transaction.

A discount broker on the other hand does not have branches in each and every city, they typically don’t send any investment advice. Their expenses are low so their brokerage rate is low too around 0.2% of the transaction.

 

Brokerage account fees

Account Opening – This can range from 0 Rs to 750 Rs.

Annual Fee – Most brokerage accounts don’t charge an annual fee

Demat Account  Fee – This can range from 300 Rs to 500 Rs, per annum, this goes to CDSL, NSDL.

Brokerage – 0% to 0.5% of the transaction for delivery and .1% for intraday.

Taxes – STT and Transaction charges, it is 0.1% of the transaction.

 

A sample transaction

Let say you buy a single share for 1000 Rs you will pay

1000 + 5 (.05% brokerage) + 1.03 (STT, transaction) + 0.75 (service tax 15% on brokerage)

1006.78 is the amount you will actually pay.

So the brokerage can add up when you are investing big amounts.

 

When you open a trading account with the stock broker, the broker also opens a depository account with CDSL or NSDL in your name. Your shares are actually stored in the depository account not your trading account. When you buy or sell shares in your trading account , the actual shares are taken or go to your depository account.

Which stock broker should I go for, our recommendation is Zerodha. No we are not being paid by Zerodha to make this recommendation, their brokerage is 0, their interface is miles ahead of competition. You won’t go wrong with Zerodha.

If you still want to go with some other broker then just remember the brokerage rates are not set in stone, you can easily negotiate them. Just tell the account manager that some other broker is giving you a lower rate and convince him that you will generate lot of trades. Once they hear that they will agree to lower your brokerage. Just make sure they write down the rates in the contract before you sign the contract.

Any questions, ask them in the comments.

The NPA crisis of 2016

Our last blog was 1 year back that is way too long in the world of internet. Last year in Jan and Feb share prices were dropping down specially in the banking sector because of the NPA crisis. RBI had made the banks to be more transparent and declare the non performing assets on their books. When the banks started doing that, the market panicked.

We said last year in our blog that there are some good companies which are undervalued and it’s a good time to buy them. Let’s talk about that.

We send an email to all our Professional members end of day which gives a list of stocks which are undervalued compared to their intrinsic value.

indian_banks_undervalued

As you can see in the above image there were many banks which were undervalued. All banking stocks had seen huge drops in their share price because of all the negative news about Non Performing Assets on their books. Smart investors should patiently wait for such crisis and buy stocks in fundamentally good companies.

Let’s start with ICICI Bank which was selling at 51% discount. Now if you read our company analysis then you would know that we are not big fans of ICICI Bank because of their aggressive lending policies but it was selling at such a huge discount we had to buy it. In Feb 2017 the stock is up 45%.

The two more banks we bought were Axis Bank and HDFC Bank, if you look at Valuation Screener Email you would see that both of them were available for around 21% discount. If you read our company analysis we like both of them. Both the stocks are up 40%.

There are two more banks in the undervalued list, SBI which is up 60% and Bank of Baroda which is up 20% compared to last year. We have already mentioned in our company analysis about the two banks that investors should be cautious in investing in those two stocks because of Govt meddling and high NPA ratios. We did not invest in them.

One year later you get these fantastic returns of 40 to 45% but are they really good, to check that you should compare your returns with Nifty, if you returns are below Nifty then you did a terrible job. Nifty returns for the same time period were 25% so investors who bought the shares of those 3 banks in Feb 2016 definetly got terrific returns.

That is all you have to do, you patiently have to wait for such opportunities and grab them when they arrive. Last year’s NPA crisis in the banking sector was one such example.

As always please do not call or email us for stock tips or advice.